This study presents a critical overview of reported essential oil (EO) extractions from citrus peel wastes (CPW), including harmonized data on the various citrus species and cultivars. Harmonization is vital to enable sustainable management practices. The review only includes eco-efficient extraction techniques. In total, the review contains 66 quantified examples using i) mechanical cold press ii) thermal extraction with water or steam media iii) thermal microwave-assisted extraction iv) other innovative methods (such as ultrasound). The technologies were assessed for their potential use in cascading production to achieve economies of scope, particularly considering the use of extraction residues for subsequent fermentation to produce various products from energy carriers to enzymes. Two techniques were found insufficient for direct use in fermentation. Cold press extracts an inadequate amount of EO (average yield 2.85% DW) to ensure suitable fermentation, while solvent extraction contaminates the residues for its subsequent use. Extractions using water media, such as hydrodistillation and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (average EO yield 2.87% DW), are feasible for the liquid-based fermentation processes, such as submerged fermentation. Steam extraction is feasible for any type of fermentation. Our review highlighted solvent-free microwave extraction (average EO yield 5.29% DW) as the most effective method, which provides a high yield in a short extraction time. We also uncovered and discussed several inconsistencies in existing yields and energy consumption published data.

Teigiserova, D. A., et al. (2021). “A step closer to circular bioeconomy for citrus peel waste: A review of yields and technologies for sustainable management of essential oils.” Journal of environmental management 280: 111832.

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