Backhousia citriodora (Lemon Myrtle)|

The essential oil of Backhousia citriodora, commonly known as lemon myrtle oil, possesses various beneficial properties due to its richness in bioactive compounds. This study aimed to characterize the chemical profile of the essential oil isolated from leaves of Backhousia citriodora (BCEO) and its biological properties, including antioxidant, antibacterial, and antibiofilm activities. Using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, 21 compounds were identified in BCEO, representing 98.50% of the total oil content. The isomers of citral, geranial (52.13%), and neral (37.65%) were detected as the main constituents. The evaluation of DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power showed that BCEO exhibited strong antioxidant activity at IC50 of 42.57 µg/mL and EC50 of 20.03 µg/mL, respectively. The antibacterial activity results showed that BCEO exhibited stronger antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis) than against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae). For the agar disk diffusion method, S. epidermidis was the most sensitive to BCEO with an inhibition zone diameter of 50.17 mm, followed by S. aureus (31.13 mm), E. coli (20.33 mm), and K. pneumoniae (12.67 mm). The results from the microdilution method showed that BCEO exhibited the highest activity against S. epidermidis and S. aureus, with the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)
value of 6.25 µL/mL. BCEO acts as a potent antibiofilm agent with dual actions, inhibiting (85.10% to 96.44%) and eradicating (70.92% to 90.73%) of the biofilms formed by the four tested bacteria strains, compared with streptomycin (biofilm inhibition, 67.65% to 94.29% and biofilm eradication, 49.97% to 89.73%). This study highlights that BCEO can potentially be a natural antioxidant agent, antibacterial agent, and antibiofilm agent that could be applied in the pharmaceutical and food industries. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report, on the antibiofilm activity of BCEO against four common nosocomial pathogens.

Lim, A. C., et al. (2022). “Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Antibiofilm Activities of Backhousia citriodora Essential Oil.” Molecules 27(15): 4895.

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