Essential Oil Applications, Melaleuca alternifolia|

In cattle, Hyalomma scupense serves as an important vector of several pathogens resulting in diseases, subsequently affecting the agricultural field as well as the economy. Resistance to chemical acaricides has become widespread affirming the need for new drugs to tick control. The goal of this study was to investigate the acaricidal, repellent activities as well as the putative mode of action of two essential oils (EOs) from Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea tree) and Chamaemelum nobile (Roman chamomile) on Hyalomma scupense. The chemical composition of EOs was also evaluated. Different concentrations of EOs were tested in vitro for their acaricidal property on adults and larvae of H. scupense using adult immersion test (AIT) and larval packet test (LPT). Additionally, using Ellman’s spectrophotometric method, the anticholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of M. alternifolia and C. nobile EOs was assessed in order to understand their putative mode of action. The main compounds of C. nobile were α-Bisabolene (22.20%) and (E)-β-Farnesene (20.41%). The major components in the analyzed M. alternifolia were Terpinen-4-ol (36.32%) and γ-Terpinene (13.69%). Adulticidal and larvicidal assays demonstrated a promising efficacy of the essential oils against tick H. scupense. The lethal concentration (LC50) values obtained for M. alternifolia and C. nobile oils were 0.84 and 0.96 mg/mL in the AIT and0.37 and 0.48 mg/mL in the LPT, respectively. Regarding repellent activity, M. alternifolia achieved 100% repellency at the concentration of 1 mg/mL while C. nobile showed 95.98% repellency activity at concentration of 4 mg/mL. Also, M. alternifolia and C. nobile EOs displayed potent AChE inhibition with IC50 value of 91.27 and 100.12 μg/mL, respectively. In the present study, M. alternifolia and, to a lesser degree, C. nobile EOs were found to be effective in vitro acaricides, repellents and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor against H. scupense ticks. These plants may represent an economical and sustainable alternative to toxic synthetic acaricides in the management of ectoparasites of veterinary importance.

Alimi, D., et al. (2024). “Laboratory assessment of the acaricidal, repellent and anti-cholinesterase effects of Melaleuca alternifolia and Chamaemelum nobile essential oils against Hyalomma scupense ticks.” Veterinary Research Communications: 1-13.

DOI: 10.1007/s11259-024-10313-3

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