We present a method, utilising a smartphone-based miniaturized Raman spectrometer and machine learning for the fast identification and discrimination of adulterated essential oils (EOs). Firstly, the approach was evaluated for discrimination of pure EOs from those adulterated with solvent, namely benzyl alcohol. In the case of ylang–ylang EO, three different types of adulteration were examined, adulteration with solvent, cheaper vegetable oil and a lower price EO. Random Forest and partial least square discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) showed excellent performance in discriminating pure from adulterated EOs, whilst the same time identifying the type of adulteration. Also, utilising partial least squares regression analysis (PLS) all adulterants, namely benzyl alcohol, vegetable oil and lower price EO, were quantified based on spectra recorded using the smartphone Raman spectrometer, with relative error of prediction (REP) being between 2.41–7.59%.
Lebanov, L. and B. Paull (2021). “Smartphone-based handheld Raman spectrometer and machine learning for essential oil quality evaluation.” Analytical Methods.